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東京医科歯科大学2010年度入試問題英語解答

90分、120点。


保健衛生学科および口腔保健学科

$ \fbox{1}$ The following words appear in bold italics in the text. On the answer sheet, circle the letter indicating the best definition for each word (based on how the word is used in the text).

campaign

c) approach

litter

e) trash

trigger

b) cause

contributed

d) added

setting

b) location

enhance

a) increase

inhibits

a) blocks

conformity

d) adherence

fosters

c) promotes

manipulated

e) controlled


保健衛生学科および口腔保健学科

$ \fbox{2}$ What do the following words, which are underlined in the text, refer to? Answer using one, two, three, or four English words that can replace the underlined text.

1) it="the BWT's scientific support"
2) it="disorderly settings"
3) it="the contextual norm"
4) they="the walls"
5) it="the flyer"


全学科

$ \fbox{3}$ According to the text, decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). For each statement circle the correct answer on the answer sheet.

1) The campaign in New York, in the mid-1990s, led to the creation of the broken windows theory (BWT).F
2) Since the New York campaign, the BWT has been shown to be successful in many countries including the Netherlands, Great Britain, Indonesia, and even South Africa.F
3) Research done to test the BWT sometimes provided support for the theory, but not always.T
4) The authors believe the sharp decrease in petty crime in New York is clear evidence of the scientific basis of the BWT.F
5) Whereas a descriptive norm refers to behavior common in a particular place, an injunctive norm refers to whether or not a behavior is approved of.T
6) Both injunctive norms and descriptive norms always help to decrease disorder.F
7) In an ordered condition, a descriptive norm is likely to be the result of people following one or more injunctive norms.T
8) The power of injunctive norm is enhanced when paired with consistent descriptive norm information.T
9) Seeing someone painting graffiti will never increase a viewer's likelihood of painting graffiti.F
10) In a littered setting, the descriptive norm may be in conflict with the injunctive norm.T
11) When people observe that others did not behave appropriately, it is likely that their concern for being appropriate will be weakened and as a result, their selfish goals may be strengthened.T
12) People's selfish desires can threaten the effectiveness of injunctive norms because they tend to be in conflict with the idea of social conformity.T
13) Some subjects were informed before the experiment that they would be observed by an experimenter.F
14) In study 1, "not littering" was defined as throwing the flyer away into the nearby garbafe can.F
15) In study 1, when a standard sign prohibiting graffiti was placed in an alley, people collecting their bicycles were less likely to litter.F
16) Study 1 found a 33% increase in littering in the disorder condition, as compared to the order condition.F
17) In studey 2, the percentage of those who trespassed (i.e., entered through the gap in the fence) was substantially lower in the order condition.T
18) In study 3, the percentage of those who littered was higher in the disorder condition where shopping carts were left unreturned.T
19) The findings of sudy 3 support the validity of the BWT in cases where private companies make rules.T
20) Study 3 demonstrated that a clear, visible sticker with the text "please return your shopping carts" prevented littering even though four shopping carts were standing around in disarray.F
21) Study 4 demonstrated that seeing people breaking a law (in this case, setting off firecrackers) has an influence on littering.F
22) Based on the results of the four studies, it appears that disorderly or norm-violateing behavior has a bad effect on the way people observe other social and injunctive norms (hence disorder will grow and expand).T
23) In more than half of the settings created in the four experiments, descriptive norm information and injunctive norm information was in conflict.F
24) The authors' observations strongly suggest that a situation with graffiti would generally reduce the injunctive power of signs such as "No Smoking". T


医学科と歯学科のみ

$ \fbox{4}$ Briefly (in 15 to 25 words) answer the following questions in your own words, using complete English sentences.

1) Summarize the findings related to the increased littering found in studies 1, 3, and 4 and present the average increase.
answer "In the disorder condition, about 30% more people on average littered compared with the number of people in the order condition.(21語)"
2) Contrast the design of studies 1 and 4, then briefly explain their common findings.
answer "In study 1, visual cues were used whereas in study 4 an audible one was used. Both showed similar results.(20語) "
3) Imagine that there is one more sentence at the very end of the article which starts with the words "Thus there is a clear message for policymakers and police officers; ...". Complete this additional sentence by providing the authors' recommendation(s).
answer "in order to fight disorder, removing early signs of petty crime such as removing graffiti or cleaning the streets is very important.(22語)"


全学科

$ \fbox{5}$ 下線部(ア)と(イ)を日本語に訳しなさい。

(ア)ゴミを捨ててはいけないという規範は、誰かがゴミを拾うのを見たときや、その規範が標語として書かれているのを見たときに、より人々の意識に影響を与えるであろう。
(イ)このように、人は必ずしも不適切な行動を真似するわけではないが、適切であるかどうかということ以外への関心を優先させるかもしれない。


全学科

$ \fbox{6}$ 本文中で紹介されている四つの研究は、基本的には同じような条件下に被験者を置くことで行われています。その条件はどのようなものですか。また、どのようなことが検証されていますか。本文中の例を用いて300字以内で説明しなさい。なお、以下のキーワードを必ず用いること: 規範("norms")、秩序("order condition")、無秩序("disorder condition")

被験者が実験者に観察されていることに気が付いていないという条件の下で、公共の場に人為的に設定された環境で実験は行われた。ゴミや落書きのない秩序の整った環境と、ゴミや落書きのある乱雑で無秩序な環境に被験者を置いて、命令的規範と記述規範の乖離が被験者の行動にどのような影響を与えるのかが調査された。二つの規範が一致する、秩序のある環境では、被験者は他の規範も守る傾向にあるが、規範に乖離がある無秩序な環境では被験者は他の規範も破りやすい。結果として、ある一つの規範が守られていない環境では、他の規範も守れなくなる傾向があることが分かった。(286語)

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