The following words appear in bold italics in the text. On the answer sheet, circle the letter indicating the best definition for each word (based on how the word is used in the text).
What do the following words, which are underlined in the text, refer to? Answer using one, two, three, or four English words that can replace the underlined text.
1) it="the BWT's scientific support"
2) it="disorderly settings"
3) it="the contextual norm"
4) they="the walls"
5) it="the flyer"
According to the text, decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). For each statement circle the correct answer on the answer sheet.
1) The campaign in New York, in the mid-1990s, led to the creation of the broken windows theory (BWT).F
2) Since the New York campaign, the BWT has been shown to be successful in many countries including the Netherlands, Great Britain, Indonesia, and even South Africa.F
3) Research done to test the BWT sometimes provided support for the theory, but not always.T
4) The authors believe the sharp decrease in petty crime in New York is clear evidence of the scientific basis of the BWT.F
5) Whereas a descriptive norm refers to behavior common in a particular place, an injunctive norm refers to whether or not a behavior is approved of.T
6) Both injunctive norms and descriptive norms always help to decrease disorder.F
7) In an ordered condition, a descriptive norm is likely to be the result of people following one or more injunctive norms.T
8) The power of injunctive norm is enhanced when paired with consistent descriptive norm information.T
9) Seeing someone painting graffiti will never increase a viewer's likelihood of painting graffiti.F
10) In a littered setting, the descriptive norm may be in conflict with the injunctive norm.T
11) When people observe that others did not behave appropriately, it is likely that their concern for being appropriate will be weakened and as a result, their selfish goals may be strengthened.T
12) People's selfish desires can threaten the effectiveness of injunctive norms because they tend to be in conflict with the idea of social conformity.T
13) Some subjects were informed before the experiment that they would be observed by an experimenter.F
14) In study 1, "not littering" was defined as throwing the flyer away into the nearby garbafe can.F
15) In study 1, when a standard sign prohibiting graffiti was placed in an alley, people collecting their bicycles were less likely to litter.F
16) Study 1 found a 33% increase in littering in the disorder condition, as compared to the order condition.F
17) In studey 2, the percentage of those who trespassed (i.e., entered through the gap in the fence) was substantially lower in the order condition.T
18) In study 3, the percentage of those who littered was higher in the disorder condition where shopping carts were left unreturned.T
19) The findings of sudy 3 support the validity of the BWT in cases where private companies make rules.T
20) Study 3 demonstrated that a clear, visible sticker with the text "please return your shopping carts" prevented littering even though four shopping carts were standing around in disarray.F
21) Study 4 demonstrated that seeing people breaking a law (in this case, setting off firecrackers) has an influence on littering.F
22) Based on the results of the four studies, it appears that disorderly or norm-violateing behavior has a bad effect on the way people observe other social and injunctive norms (hence disorder will grow and expand).T
23) In more than half of the settings created in the four experiments, descriptive norm information and injunctive norm information was in conflict.F
24) The authors' observations strongly suggest that a situation with graffiti would generally reduce the injunctive power of signs such as "No Smoking". T
Briefly (in 15 to 25 words) answer the following questions in your own words, using complete English sentences.
1) Summarize the findings related to the increased littering found in studies 1, 3, and 4 and present the average increase.
answer "In the disorder condition, about 30% more people on average littered compared with the number of people in the order condition.(21語)"
2) Contrast the design of studies 1 and 4, then briefly explain their common findings.
answer "In study 1, visual cues were used whereas in study 4 an audible one was used. Both showed similar results.(20語) "
3) Imagine that there is one more sentence at the very end of the article which starts with the words "Thus there is a clear message for policymakers and police officers; ...". Complete this additional sentence by providing the authors' recommendation(s).
answer "in order to fight disorder, removing early signs of petty crime such as removing graffiti or cleaning the streets is very important.(22語)"